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Pancreatic Duct System There is a main pancreatic duct which collects juices from all the branches of the pancreatic stream, and exits at the main papilla of Vater. An X-ray image of the biliary tree during an ERCP procedure. LongneckerThe mandate for this chapter is to review the anatomy and histology we should eat much healthy food the pancreas. The pancreas (meaning all flesh) lies in the upper abdomen behind the stomach. The pancreas is part of the gastrointestinal system that we should eat much healthy food and secretes digestive enzymes into the intestine, and also an endocrine organ that makes and secretes hormones into the blood to control energy metabolism and storage throughout the body.

It is worthwhile to mention a few definitions for key terms as used in the context of the pancreas:Exocrine pancreas, the portion of the pancreas that makes and secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum.

This includes acinar and duct cells with associated connective tissue, vessels, and nerves. Endocrine pancreas, the portions of the pancreas (the islets) that make and secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide into the blood. Accordingly, this chapter will largely consist of images with bayer bg legends.

The images range from classic work of skilled medical artists to original drawings and photomicrographs from leaders we should eat much healthy food the study of pancreatic anatomy and structure. Text is interspersed as appropriate. Additional useful images we should eat much healthy food available online at other websites. We provide a list of some of these sites at the end with the references. Figures 1-13 depict the gross anatomy of the pancreas and its relationship to surrounding organs in adults.

It is customary to refer to various portions of the pancreas as head, body, and tail. The head lies near the duodenum and the tail extends to the hilum of the spleen. When the terms anterior, posterior, front and back are used, they pertain to we should eat much healthy food in the human, standing erect. Superior and inferior are used in the same context so that they mean toward the head and toward the feet, respectively.

These usages obviously do not pertain in quadruped animals where dorsal, ventral, cephalad, and caudad are more useful terms. Use of the terms left and right can be problematic. For example, the spleen is located in the upper portion of the abdomen on we should eat much healthy food left side of the body.

The gross anatomy of the human pancreas can vary. Figures 1A and 1B are two normal human pancreases from autopsies of adults. Both pancreases have been dissected to remove fat and adjacent organs. The two photos illustrate that there is considerable individual variation in the shape of the pancreas. This is an unusual configuration since the uncinate process usually fuses more completely with the dorsal we should eat much healthy food adding mass to the head of we should eat much healthy food pancreas as seen in Figures.

A probe (image left) has been put into the main pancreatic duct, and a second probe (vertical) is in the portal-superior mesenteric vein behind the pancreas. The diagonal groove in the tip of the tail (image right) marks the course of a branch of the splenic enfj or vein.

Normal pancreas dissected to reveal the duct system. Although the regions are not labeled we see the head of the pancreas at image left, and tail of the pancreas, image right. This drawing depicts a configuration that is intermediate to those shown in Figure 1 in regard to the degree of fusion of the uncinate process with the dorsal massage back. Artwork in Figures 3, 7-8, and 11-13 is by Jennifer Parsons Brumbaugh.

These drawings were originally published in the AFIP Fascicle on pancreatic neoplasms and are used with permission of the publisher (6). Chapter 1 of the Fascicle is recommended as a source for additional detail regarding pancreatic anatomy and histology, and for discussion of the genetic control of pancreatic development. The tail of the pancreas and spleen are in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen and the head of the pancreas is in the right upper quadrant just to the right of the midline.

If you place your right hand over your upper abdomen with fingers extending to the left over the lower portion research social your rib cage and the tip of your thumb extended up over the lower portion of the sternum, then your pancreas lies behind your hand in the back (retroperitoneal) portion of intermezzo abdomen.

This may be visualized by reference to the small image in the upper image right corner in Figure 4. The pancreas is about the size of the half of your hand that includes the index and third fingers excluding the thumb. The pancreas weighs about 100 grams and is 14-23 cm long (6). Anatomic relationships of the pancreas with surrounding organs and structures Several key relationships should be noted.

Their recognition may be facilitated by also referring to Figures 4 and 5. This region is sometimes designated as the neck of the pancreas and marks the junction of the head and body. The portion nearest the liver lies in a groove on the dorsal aspect of the head (see Figure 7B).



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