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Subsequently, the cells were further incubated with exosome-free medium (Gibco) for 24 h. The acidity-alkalinity of the cell culture medium was controlled and regulated four times throughout the 24 h incubation. Subsequently, the culture medium was replaced by PBS of the same acidity-alkalinity (pH 6. One hundred microliters of the cell lysate were used for determination of the protein concentration by modified Lowry protein assay (Thermo Scientific).

After rapid washing twice with cold PBS, the cells were detached with trypsin, and cell-associated CPM was measured with a radiometric detector (PerkinElmer). Cellular uptake was expressed as the percentage of uptake per well Triamcinolone Hexacetonide Injectable Suspension (Aristospan Injection 20 mg)- FDA to that of the control group (no treatment with vitamin C or pantoprazole).

Tumor diameters were measured every three days with a slide caliper. Treatments were administered when the xenografts had reached a diameter of approximately 6 mm. Pantoprazole was administered one day before vitamin C injection. All mice were sacrificed 2 weeks after the initiation of treatment. After sacrifice, the tumors were dissected for immunohistochemistry (IHC). No adverse effects were observed in the animals.

Imaging was conducted using a micro-PET system (Inveon, SIEMENS, Germany), and the radiotracer was allowed to accumulate in the tumor for 45 min.

The mice were then imaged for a 15 min static acquisition (28). Tumor-to-background ratios (TBRs) were calculated to semi-quantitatively analyse18F-FDG uptake in the tumor. Circular three-dimensional regions of interest Triamcinolone Hexacetonide Injectable Suspension (Aristospan Injection 20 mg)- FDA were delineated manually in the area with the highest tumor activity.

The diameter did not cover the entire tumor to avoid partial volume effects. For determination of background activity, three-dimensional ROIs were delineated in the femoral muscle.

Tumor tissues were collected for IHC at the end of treatment. Apoptosis and proliferation were analysed based on staining with antibodies targeting Ki-67 and cleaved caspase3 (Sevicebio, Palo Alto, CA, USA) staining.

Cells expressing Ki-67 or cleaved caspase3 were quantified based on H-scores. H-scores are used to assess the extent of nuclear immunoreactivity of steroid receptors. The range of H-scores is 0 to 300. IHC analysis was performed as reported previously (10). As determined by the WST-8 assay, in cell culture medium with an acidic pH (6. However, when cells were pretreated with pantoprazole for 24 h, pantoprazole single treatment caused a reduction in the viability of PC3 prostate cancer cells to 0.

Moreover, the reduction in cell viability was slightly more robust following combined administration of vitamin C and pantoprazole in both prostate cancer cell lines (Figure 1A). In contrast, at an alkaline pH (7. Compared to no pretreatment, pretreatment with pantoprazole (24 h) followed by combined administration of vitamin C and pantoprazole caused an additional reduction in the viability of prostate cancer cells (Figure 1A).

Similar results were obtained for MCF7 and SKBR3 and SKOV3 cells. OVCAR3 showed somewhat different results (Supplement 1). Figure 1 Pantoprazole in combination with vitamin C inhibits cell proliferation and induces ROS accumulation. The cell viability and ROS levels in the control group (a) were defined as 1.

Any changes in cell viability and Triamcinolone Hexacetonide Injectable Suspension (Aristospan Injection 20 mg)- FDA levels following the different treatments are shown relative to the levels in the control group at two different pH values (pH 6.

No increase was observed Ziv-Aflibercept Injection for Intravenous Infusion (Zaltrap)- Multum pantoprazole pretreatment (Figure 1B). In cell culture medium with a slightly alkaline pH (7. To characterize the cytotoxic mechanism of vitamin C and pantoprazole Triamcinolone Hexacetonide Injectable Suspension (Aristospan Injection 20 mg)- FDA cancer cells, we first monitored apoptotic cell death using flow cytometric analysis (FACS).

This was Euflexxa (Sodium Hyaluronate Intra-articular Injection, 1%)- Multum in PC3 and DU145 cells at a slightly acidic pH (6. In cell culture medium with a pH of 7. However, in PC3 cells, particularly at vitamin C concentrations of 4, 8 and 16 mM, the elimination of tumors cells induced by the combined treatment regimen (vitamin C plus pretreatment with pantoprazole) was not superior to that with vitamin C only (Figures 2B, D).

FACS analysis of breast and ovarian cancer cells also Triamcinolone Hexacetonide Injectable Suspension (Aristospan Injection 20 mg)- FDA that the synergistic effect of pantoprazole on cytotoxicity in slightly acidic (pH 6. Figure 2 Pantoprazole Clotrimazole (Mycelex)- FDA combination with vitamin C induces apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Column diagram (upper panel): quantification of the FACS results.

Moreover, the intracellular pH of prostate and breast cancer cells was modified following alteration of the extracellular pH or following pantoprazole treatment (Figure 3B). This effect of pantoprazole seemed to be stronger in acidic (pH 6. However, in SKOV3 cells, we did not observed a clear change in the intracellular pH in response to pantoprazole treatment (Figure 3B). Furthermore, we noticed that in comparison with acidic pH (6. Moreover, pantoprazole reduced the secretion of exosomes under acidic (6.

In DU145 cells incubated at pH 6. However, in PC3 no difference in cellular vitamin C uptake was observed following addition of pantoprazole at pH 6. The same was true for MCF7 and SKOV3 at pH 7. Figure 3 Pantoprazole regulates the extra- and intracellular pH of cancer cells. Figure 4 Pantoprazole significantly increases cellular vitamin C uptake and inhibits the production of exosomes depending on the pH value of the cell culture medium.

The protein concentration was determined by the BCA protein assay, and exosomes were lysed using RIPA buffer. Pantoprazole did not significantly influence the effect of chelators on the toxicity of vitamin C, although pantoprazole could promote the cytotoxicity of vitamin C (Supplement 4).

In the combined group, pantoprazole was administered one day before vitamin C. In addition, treatment of tumors with the combination therapy led to more cleaved caspase-3-positive (apoptotic) cells (p Figure 5B).

Furthermore, exposure to the combined treatment regimen significantly decreased the percentage of Ki67-positive cells from 38.

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