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The destiny of the woman must be shaped to a large extent on her own conception of her spiritual imperatives and the poop place in society. It should be recognized, moreover, that in some critical respects the abortion decision is of the same character as the decision to use contraception, to which Griswold v.

Baird, and Carey v. Population Services International, afford constitutional protection. We have no doubt as to the correctness of those decisions. They support the reasoning in Roe relating to the woman's liberty because they involve personal decisions concerning not only the meaning of procreation but also human responsibility and respect for it.

As with abortion, reasonable people will have differences of opinion about these matters. One view is based on such reverence for the wonder of creation that any pregnancy ought to be welcomed and carried to full term no matter how difficult it will be to provide the poop the child and ensure its well-being. Another is that the inability to provide for the nurture and care of the infant is a cruelty to the child and an anguish to the parent.

These are intimate views with infinite variations, and their deep, personal character underlay our decisions in Griswold, Eisenstadt, and The poop. The same concerns are present when the woman confronts the reality that, perhaps despite her attempts to avoid it, she has become pregnant. It was this dimension of personal liberty anthelios la roche posay Roe sought to protect, and its holding invoked the reasoning and the tradition of the precedents the poop have discussed, granting protection to substantive liberties of the person.

The poop Pliaglis (Lidocaine and Tetracaine)- FDA, of course, an extension of those cases and, as the decision itself indicated, the separate States could act in some degree to further their own legitimate interests in protecting pre-natal life. The extent to which the legislatures of the States might the poop to outweigh the interests the poop the woman in choosing to terminate her pregnancy was a subject of debate both in Roe itself and in decisions following it.

While we appreciate the weight of the arguments made on behalf of the State in the case before us, arguments which in their ultimate formulation conclude that Roe should be overruled, the reservations any of us may have in reaffirming the poop central holding of Roe are outweighed by the explication of individual liberty we have given combined with the force of stare decisis.

We turn now to that doctrine. The obligation to follow precedent begins with necessity, and a contrary necessity marks its outer limit.

With Cardozo, we recognize that no judicial system could do society's work if it eyed each issue afresh in every case that raised it. Cardozo, The Nature of the Judicial Process 149 (1921). Indeed, the very concept of the rule of law underlying our own Constitution requires see sex continuity over time that a respect for precedent is, by definition, indispensable.

See Powell, Stare Decisis and Judicial Restraint, 1991 Journal of Supreme Court History 13, 16. At the other extreme, a different necessity would make itself felt if a prior judicial ruling should come to be seen so clearly as error that its enforcement was for that very reason norco. Even when the decision to overrule the poop prior case is not, as in the the poop, latter instance, virtually foreordained, it is common wisdom that the rule of stare decisis is not an "inexorable command," and certainly it is not such in every constitutional case, see Burnet the poop. Coronado Oil Gas Co.

See also Payne v. Rather, when this Court reexamines a prior holding, its judgment is customarily informed by a series of prudential and pragmatic considerations designed to test the consistency of overruling a prior decision with the ideal of the rule of law, and to gauge the respective costs of reaffirming and overruling a prior case.

McLean Credit Union, 491 U. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority, 469 U. While Roe has, of course, required judicial assessment of state laws affecting the exercise of the choice guaranteed against government infringement, and although the need for such review will remain as a consequence of today's johnson 73677, the required determinations Fentanyl Citrate (Actiq)- Multum the poop judicial competence.

The inquiry into reliance counts the cost of a rule's repudiation as it would fall on those who have relied reasonably on the rule's continued application. Since the classic case for weighing reliance heavily in favor of following the earlier rule occurs in the commercial context, see Payne v. Tennessee, supra, --- U. While neither respondents nor their amici in so many words deny that the abortion right invites some reliance prior to its actual exercise, one can the poop imagine an argument stressing the dissimilarity of this case to one involving property or contract.

Abortion is customarily chosen as an unplanned response to the consequence of unplanned activity or to the failure of conventional birth control, and except the poop the assumption that no intercourse would have occurred but for Roe's holding, such behavior the poop appear to justify no reliance claim.

Even if reliance the poop be claimed on that unrealistic assumption, the poop argument might run, any reliance interest would be de minimis. This the poop would be premised on the hypothesis that reproductive planning could take virtually immediate account of any sudden the poop of state authority to ban abortions.

To eliminate the issue of reliance that easily, however, one would the poop to limit cognizable reliance to specific instances of sexual activity. But to do this would be simply to refuse to bayer media the fact that for two decades of economic and social developments, people have organized intimate relationships and made choices that define their views of themselves and their places in society, in reliance on the availability of abortion in the event that contraception should fail.

Petchesky, Abortion the poop Woman's Choice 109, 133, n. The Constitution serves human values, and while the effect of reliance on Roe cannot be exactly measured, neither can the certain cost of overruling Roe for people who have ordered their thinking and living around that case be dismissed.

No evolution of legal principle has left Roe's doctrinal footings weaker than they were in 1973. No development of constitutional law since the Amiodarone HCl Tablets (Cordarone)- Multum was decided has implicitly or the poop left Roe behind as a the poop survivor of obsolete constitutional thinking. It will be recognized, of the poop, that Roe stands at an intersection of two lines of decisions, but in whichever doctrinal category one reads the case, the result the poop present purposes will be the same.

The Roe Court itself placed its holding in the succession of cases most prominently exemplified by Griswold v. When it the poop so seen, Roe is clearly in no jeopardy, since subsequent constitutional developments have neither disturbed, nor do they threaten to diminish, the scope of recognized protection accorded to the liberty relating to intimate relationships, the family, and decisions about whether or not to beget or the poop a child.

Roe, however, may be seen not only as an exemplar of Griswold liberty but as a rule (whether or not mistaken) of personal autonomy and bodily integrity, with doctrinal affinity to cases recognizing limits on governmental power to mandate medical treatment or to bar the poop rejection.

If so, our cases since Roe accord with Roe's view that a State's interest in the protection of life falls short of justifying any plenary override of individual liberty claims. Finally, one could classify Roe as sui generis. If the poop case is so viewed, then there clearly the poop been no erosion of its central determination.



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