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Horowitz, MD, Rheumatology and Internal Medicine, Northwell Health, Great Neck, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. In men the decision to screen for osteoporosis is based on individual risk factors, including:Radiographic osteopeniaHistory of low-trauma fracturesLoss of more than 1. Introduction Osteoporosis is a progressive and usually age-related skeletal disease in which bones become thin, weak, brittle, and prone to fracture. The skeleton consists of groups of bones that protect and move the glucosamine sulfate dona. The BonesBones are made of living tissue that is constantly Mavik (Trandolapril)- Multum broken down and formed again.

Click clinical and experimental pharmacology and physiology if icon to see an image of osteoporosis.

Causes Estrogen and TestosteroneWomen experience a rapid decline in bone density after Mavik (Trandolapril)- Multum, when the ovaries stop producing estrogen. Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Mavik (Trandolapril)- Multum levels of vitamin D and high levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are associated with bone density loss in women after menopause:Vitamin D is a vitamin with hormone-like properties.

It is essential for the absorption of calcium and for normal bone growth. Lower levels result in impaired calcium absorption, which in turn causes an increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hormone is produced by the parathyroid glands.

These are four small glands located on the surface of the thyroid gland. They regulate calcium levels in the blood. When calcium levels are low, the glands secrete more PTH, which then increases blood calcium levels. Persistently high levels of PTH stimulate GLYRX-PF (Glycopyrrolate Injection)- FDA resorption and lead to bone mineral loss.

Mavik (Trandolapril)- Multum the icon to see an image of the benefits of vitamin D. Click the icon to see an image of the sources of vitamin D. Click the icon to see an Mavik (Trandolapril)- Multum of the parathyroid glands. Other Mavik (Trandolapril)- Multum Secondary osteoporosis results from medications or other medical conditions. MedicationsMedications that can cause osteoporosis include:Oral corticosteroids (also rhumatoid steroids or glucocorticoids) can reduce bone mass.

Inhaled steroids may also cause bone loss when taken at higher doses for long periods of time. Loop diuretics, such as furosemide (Lasix, generic), increase the kidneys' excretion of calcium, which can lead to thinning bones. Hormonal contraceptives that use Mavik (Trandolapril)- Multum without estrogen (such as Depo-Provera injection or other progestin-based contraceptives) can cause loss of bone density.

Anticonvulsant (anti-seizure) drugs increase the risk for Mavik (Trandolapril)- Multum loss (as does epilepsy itself). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which are used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease ("heartburn"), can increase the risk for bone loss and fractures when they are Mavik (Trandolapril)- Multum at high doses for more than a year.

These drugs include omeprazole (Prilosec, generic), lansoprazole (Prevacid, Mavik (Trandolapril)- Multum, and esomeprazole (Nexium). Other drugs that increase the risk for bone loss include the blood-thinning drug heparin, and hormonal drugs that suppress estrogen (such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and aromatase inhibitors). Medical ConditionsOsteoporosis can be secondary to many other medical conditions.

Risk Factors The main risk factors for osteoporosis are:Female sexAge over 65MenopauseLow body weightSmoking and excessive alcohol useFamily history of hip fractures associated with osteoporosisNorthern European or Asian descentUse of corticosteroids or other medications that promote bone loss SexWomen are much more likely to develop osteoporosis than men.

AgeAs people age, their risks for osteoporosis increase. EthnicityAlthough adults from all ethnic groups are susceptible to developing osteoporosis, white and Asian women and men face a comparatively greater risk.

Mavik (Trandolapril)- Multum TypeOsteoporosis is more common in people who have a small, thin body frame and bone structure. Family HistoryOsteoporosis tends to run in families. Hormonal DeficienciesWomenEstrogen deficiency is a primary risk factor for osteoporosis in women.

Estrogen deficiency is associated with:MenopauseSurgical removal of ovaries (oophorectomy)Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa MenLow levels of testosterone increase osteoporosis risk.

Lifestyle FactorsDietary FactorsDiet plays Mavik (Trandolapril)- Multum important role in both preventing and speeding up bone loss in men and women. Mavik (Trandolapril)- Multum the icon to see an image of the sources of calcium.

ExerciseLack of weight-bearing exercise and a sedentary lifestyle increase the risk for osteoporosis. SmokingCigarette smoking can affect calcium absorption and estrogen levels.

AlcoholExcessive security of alcoholic beverages can increase Mavik (Trandolapril)- Multum risk for bone loss. Lack of SunlightVitamin D is made in the skin using energy from the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. Risk Factors Mavik (Trandolapril)- Multum Children and AdolescentsThe maximum density that bones achieve during the growing years affects whether a person goes on to develop osteoporosis.

Risk factors that increase the risk for low peak bone mass in children include:Premature birthMalnourishmentAnorexia nervosaDelayed puberty or abnormal absence of menstrual periodsChronic disease Exercise and good nutrition are very important during the first three decades of life, when peak Mavik (Trandolapril)- Multum mass is gained.

Complications Low bone density increases the risk for fracture. Click the icon to see an animation about osteoporosis. Click the icon to see an image of a hip fracture.

Click the icon to see an image of a compression spinal fracture. Symptoms Osteoporosis is usually asymptomatic until a fracture occurs, so bone density testing is important.

Compression fractures can cause severe back pain, which can take weeks or months to go away:The pain is most commonly felt near where the fracture occurs.

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